Felons, domestic abusers, and other prohibited people attempt to buy guns regularly in South Carolina — and are stopped only by a background check.
Since 1998, a total of more than 73,000 sales to prohibited purchasers were denied in South Carolina— including nearly 44,000 illegal sales to convicted felons and more than 6,600 illegal sales to prohibited domestic abusers.1Everytown obtained state-level NICS denial data via FOIA requests for each year between 1998 and 2018. Though the majority of the transactions and denials reported by the FBI are associated with a firearm sale or transfer, a small number may be for concealed carry permits and other reasons not related to a sale or transfer.
While the FBI is responsible for all background checks at the point of purchase, the South Carolina Legislature has helped the FBI block illegal purchases. In 2013, the Legislature passed House Bill 3560, requiring prohibiting mental health records – both future records and existing records – to be submitted to the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS).2The law required courts to submit retroactive information on prohibited individuals going back a minimum of ten years, or if records were not available as far back as ten years, as far back as possible. As of December 2018, South Carolina had submitted nearly 92,000 prohibiting mental health records to NICS.3Active Records in the NICS Indices by State. Washington, DC: Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation. Available at https://bit.ly/2CwVOlF.
South Carolina has not closed the unlicensed sale loophole, meaning felons, domestic abusers, people prohibited due to mental illness, and other prohibited people can skip a background check and get armed simply by seeking an unlicensed seller at a gun show or online. Recent data gives a glimpse at the size of that loophole in South Carolina.
A recent study of the online gun market Armlist.com revealed a massive marketplace where unchecked gun sales are taking place between complete strangers meeting online, allowing criminals and other prohibited purchasers an easy avenue for access.
In 2018 alone, there were 54,765 South Carolina ads on Armslist.com for firearm sales that would not require a background check.4Everytown for Gun Safety. Unchecked: Over 1 Million Online Firearm Ads, No Background Checks Required. February 2019. https://every.tw/2UXjYwf.
Using several sample states, that study showed that 1 in 9 would-be buyers on Armslist.com would have failed a background check — a rate over 7 times higher than those who fail background checks at licensed dealers or in other contexts where background checks are required.5Ibid.
Critics of background check laws claim they will not make a difference in how guns are sold.But Everytown’s investigation showed that laws matter. Unlicensed sellers in states that have passed background check laws show a high degree of compliance – with 84 percent of sellers from states with background check laws directly stating the sale would need a check, and only 6% of the unlicensed sellers in states without background check laws indicating a background check was required.6Ibid.
Too many South Carolinians are killed with guns.
Every year, 829 South Carolinians are killed with guns and thousands more are shot and injured.7Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS) Fatal Injury Reports. A yearly average was developed using five years of most recent available data: 2013 to 2017.
State laws requiring background checks for all handgun sales – by point-of-sale check and/or permit – are associated with lower firearm homicide rates, lower firearm suicide rates and lower firearm trafficking.8Siegel M, Boine C. What are the most effective policies in reducing firearm homicides? Rockefeller Government Institute. 2019; Fleegler EW, Lee LK, Monuteaux MC, Hemenway D, Mannix R. Firearm legislation and firearm-related fatalities in the United States. JAMA Internal Medicine. 2013; 173(9):732-740; Webster DW, Vernick JS, Bulzacchelli MT. Effects of state-level firearm seller accountability policies on firearm trafficking. Journal of Urban Health. 2009. 86(4):525–537; Federal law bars felons from having firearms, but does not bar misdemeanors outside the domestic violence context. Webster DW, Vernick JS, McGinty EE, & Alcorn T. Preventing the diversion of guns to criminals through effective firearm sales laws. In Reducing Gun Violence in America: Informing Policy with Evidence and Analysis. 2013.Vol. 9781421411118, pp. 109-121. A 2019 analysis found that states with laws requiring background checks for all gun sales are associated with a 10 percent lower homicide rates.9Siegel M, Boine C. What are the most effective policies in reducing firearm homicides? Rockefeller Government Institute. 2019.
It is convenient to find a licensed dealer in South Carolina and complete a background check.
Requiring background checks on all gun sales would not be burdensome to law-abiding South Carolinians. In fact, 99.1 percent of South Carolinians live within 10 miles of a gun dealer—so it’s easy and convenient to get the background check done.10Everytown analysis of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF) Federal Firearms Licensee (FFL) dealers and U.S. population. Data on licensed gun dealers were obtained from the ATF through November 2018 here: https://bit.ly/2SPLs9O . Data on census block groups were obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau here: https://bit.ly/2BCfBzw. Distance was calculated between the centroid of each census block group and each licensed dealer to determine the closest dealer. There are more than 1,000 unique gun dealers in South Carolina, four times as many McDonald’s and nearly three times as many post offices.11Federal Firearms Listings. Washington, D.C. ATF. https://bit.ly/2SPLs9O. Analyses were done to determine the latitude and longitude of each licensed dealer and duplicates by latitude, longitude, and state were removed for a total of 1,021 unique licensed gun dealers in South Carolina; Andrews, Colman. Is your state ‘lovin’ it’? A look at where the most McDonald’s are located in the US. USA Today. https://bit.ly/2vWWugb; Postmaster Finder. Washington, D.C. United States Postal Service. https://bit.ly/2qiWoOi.
Loopholes in the background check law enable gun trafficking in South Carolina.
Existing loopholes in the background check law in South Carolina are negatively impacting states that have closed the background check loophole. Research has shown that state laws requiring background checks for all handgun sales are associated with 48 percent lower rates of gun trafficking in cities and 29 percent lower rates of gun trafficking across state lines.12Webster DW, Vernick JS, Bulzacchelli MT. Effects of state-level firearm seller accountability policies on firearm trafficking. Journal of Urban Health. 2009. 86(4):525–537; Federal law bars felons from having firearms, but does not bar misdemeanors outside the domestic violence context. Webster DW, Vernick JS, McGinty EE, & Alcorn T. Preventing the diversion of guns to criminals through effective firearm sales laws. In Reducing Gun Violence in America: Informing Policy with Evidence and Analysis. 2013.Vol. 9781421411118, pp. 109-121.
Between 2013 and 2017, more than 10,000 crime guns that originated in South Carolina were recovered in crimes in states outside of South Carolina – more than 6,900 of these crime guns were traced in states that have comprehensive background check laws.13Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF). Firearms trace data. https://bit.ly/2nigapL. Totals were developed using five years of most recent available data: 2013 to 2017. This excludes crime guns recovered in CO and DE in 2013, WA in 2013 and 2014, and OR in 2013-2015.
And the unregulated, online marketplace has enabled prohibited purchasers to weaken state background check laws by traveling to neighboring states without these laws. Between 2016 and 2017, three individuals were arrested for trafficking an estimated 90 firearms purchased on Armslist.com and Facebook into Illinois from Kentucky. These firearms were subsequently linked to violent crimes in Illinois.14Yablon A. Chicago felons busted for gun trafficking bought weapons via Armslist and Facebook. The Trace. May 16, 2018. Available at https://bit.ly/2SchxFp.